Colour-pattern analysis of eyespots on the ventral forewing. (A-C) There are three eyespots on the same wing surface: 1st (minor), 2nd (minor), and 3rd (major). The eyespots are enlarged to similar sizes in these photographs. Refer to Figure 1 for their relationship on the wing. Note the differences in the ring width proportions. Modified from Otaki . (D) Ring width ratios in the three eyespots shown in A-C. Small eyespots have wider yellow-ring width proportions. Modified from Otaki . (E) Relationship between eyespot size and ring width. As the eyespot size becomes larger, the inner black ring becomes wider and the yellow ring narrower. Modified from Otaki . (F) The major (3rd) eyespot and other nearby elemental positions on the ventral forewing. The blue arrow indicates the element that could block the propagation of the eyespot signal proximally. (G) A wing identical to that shown in F; however, the wing is illuminated from the bottom upward so that both the dorsal and ventral colour patterns can be simultaneously observed. The blue arrow indicates the position identical to that shown in F. The red arrow indicates the edge of the outer black ring on the dorsal side.